Technological Innovation

What is UL94?

UL94 is a standard for safety testing of flammability properties of plastic materials used in various industries. It is widely recognized and accepted as the most common flamability test method in the world. The UL94 standard was developed by Underwriters Laboratories (UL), an independent safety science company that conducts product testing and certification.

Flammability Ratings

The UL94 standard classifies materials into several different flammability ratings, ranging from V-0 to HB. These ratings are based on the performance of the materials when subjected to various controlled fire tests.

V-0 is the highest rating, indicating that the material stops burning within 10 seconds after the ignition source is removed and does not generate flaming drips. V-1 and V-2 are lower ratings, indicating that the material takes longer to stop burning or may produce flaming drips after the ignition source is removed.

HB is the lowest rating, indicating that the material does not meet the requirements for the V classification and may continue to burn after the ignition source is removed.

Test Procedures

The UL94 test involves subjecting the material to both a vertical and a horizontal flame test. During the vertical flame test, a small flame is applied to the bottom edge of a vertical sample specimen. The material's behavior during and after exposure to the flame is observed. The horizontal flame test is similar, but the flame is applied to the surface of a horizontally oriented sample.

Other criteria such as self-extinguishing capability, dielectric strength, and resistance to impact are also considered in determining the material's overall flammability rating.


The UL94 standard is widely used in various industries to assess the flammability of plastic materials and to ensure their safety in different applications. It is particularly important in industries such as electronics, automotive, and construction where the risk of fire is a significant concern.

By using materials with higher UL94 ratings, manufacturers can help reduce the risk of fire incidents and ensure the safety of their products and customers.

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